A happy family who has just got one of the easiest citizenships in Europe

Where are the easiest countries for acquiring citizenship in the world today? It all depends on you.

Getting dual citizenship has its fair share of advantages. There are different ways to get citizenship in a new country, and you need to find the best for you and your family. Indeed, the easiest citizenship for a US passport holder may be impossible for other nationalities. Likewise, the easiest countries to get citizenship in Europe (EU) may be more difficult than others in parts of the world.

What is the easiest country in the world to get citizenship for YOU

When looking at the easiest country to get citizenship, there are some factors you should look at.

  • Which nationalities do you already hold?
  • Which country were you born in?
  • Who is your partner? What is the status of your relationship, and what are their nationalities?
  • Your ancestry & blood relatives. Specifically, where are your parents and grandparents from, and what is your family history?
  • How much money do you have available to invest or spend on a second passport or dual citizenship?
  • What are the pathways to establishing residency in your chosen country?
  • How long are you willing to live in a particular country before becoming a citizen of that country?

The easiest country for citizenship is one that has an accessible pathway for you.

Types of Citizenship

  1. By Birthplace. The nationality of the country in which you are born.
  2. By Descent. You can inherit nationality. Most commonly, this is from your parents, but it can be from ancestors hundreds of years ago.
  3. By Naturalization. If you are a resident of a country, there is a process to become a national. This path includes By Marriage, as there is often a fast track to taking your spouse’s nationality.
  4. By Investment. Countries can grant nationality to people who contribute to their economies through a qualifying investment program or donation.

Easy countries to get Citizenship by Birthplace

Jus Soli (or the law of the soil) gives anyone born in the country the right to citizenship. This rule is also sometimes called “birthright” citizenship. Mainly the Americas offer citizenship under this rule, with no European country offering unrestricted jus soli nationality.

To claim this, all you need is to be born in a country that uses this rule. It doesn’t matter why your parents were there or what their immigration status was. Children born to diplomats or occupying forces are the only people not eligible.

Some notable examples of jus soli nationality countries include:

  • Argentina
  • Barbados
  • Canada
  • Fiji
  • Jamaica
  • Mexico
  • Panama
  • St Kitts and Nevis
  • The United States of America (USA)
  • Uruguay

For a complete list of countries that offer unrestricted birthright through jus soli, please see Appendix 1.

Easy countries to get Citizenship by Descent

Your bloodline is crucial to many countries. Jus sanguinis is “the right of blood,” and you can reach right back into history with this rule.

A child with his grandparents who are able to give him citizenship of the country they were born in

Here are some of the easiest countries to get citizenship by descent.


Ireland lets you go back up to three generations. So, if you have a great-grandparent of either gender, you could get Irish nationality. This generous provision means there are now twice as many Irish citizens abroad as in Ireland. While the joke that a sip of Guinness qualifies is not actual, many still can acquire Irish citizenship through ancestry.

  • You can get Irish citizenship if your grandparent was born in Ireland, i.e. you have Irish ancestry. This entitlement is not affected by when or where you were born.
  • You can also get citizenship through a great-grandparent. You and your parent must be registered on the Foreign Births Registry. This entitlement is also not affected by where you were born. To obtain Irish citizenship from your great-grandparent, your parent, who is of Irish descent, must have registered in the Irish Foreign Births Register between the years 1956 and 1986, or if you were born after 1986, they need to have registered before you were born.

As a European Union country, Ireland can be an easy way to get EU citizenship for those lucky enough to qualify for Irish citizenship.


One of the best offers is Italian citizenship by descent. If you have Italian heritage, you may well be eligible.

On March 17th, 1861, Italy took the first steps towards becoming the country we know today. For citizenship, you need to have an ancestor who was an Italian citizen at that time or was born in Italy after then.

There is a restriction as the lineage must be unbroken. So, no ancestor has revoked their Italian nationality or become a citizen of another country before the next in line was born.

To illustrate, here are two scenarios.

  1. Your Italian ancestor moved to Argentina in 1890. While still an Italian citizen, they had a child that took Argentinian nationality. You are descended from that child. In this case, you can apply for Italian citizenship.
  2. The same scenario, but the ancestor who immigrated took Argentinian nationality and revoked their Italian citizenship when they arrived. They then had their child. In this case, you would not be eligible.

There are exceptions and additional rules, but Italy may be one of the easiest countries to get European citizenship if you meet those two requirements.

We’ve written a detailed guide to Italian citizenship and passport with everything you need to know about gaining citizenship in Italy.


Like Italy, Poland has recognized blood rights. However, their descendant rule goes back to 1920, just after independence in 1918. You must have an ancestor born in Poland after 1900 (so they were still a minor when the law was passed.)

Your claim is based on any ancestor having lived in Poland as a Polish citizen after that time. You can apply if you have an ancestor who meets those criteria.

Poland only recognizes you if your Polish nationality was passed on unbroken. So, suppose any of your ancestors revoked their Polish citizenship before the birth of the next generation. In that case, you will not be eligible.


A new Hungarian nationality law was passed in 2011. If you have family that meets the requirements, you may be eligible for citizenship.

The law covers descendants of anyone who was a Hungarian citizen before 1920 or between 1941 and 1945. The law includes areas that used to be part of Hungary but are now parts of neighboring countries such as Slovakia and Romania.

And, there is no restriction on how far back you can go. As long as you can show an unbroken, qualifying link, you may be eligible.

There is a requirement to speak basic Hungarian before you apply.

Other countries that offer some form of ancestry program

Here are some other countries that offer citizenship by descent programs that go beyond your parents.

  • Armenia
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Israel
  • Latvia
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Portugal
  • Romania
  • Spain
  • United Kingdom

Descendants of those persecuted

Several European countries offer citizenship to descendants of victims of state persecution. Examples of this include:

Portugal Sephardic Jewish citizenship

If you can show you are descended from the Sephardic Jewish community, you may be eligible for Portuguese citizenship. This community was persecuted and expelled from the Iberian Peninsula around 1492.

German and Austrian citizenship for Nazi victims

The Nazi government stripped Austrian and German citizenship from many people for political, racial, sexual orientation, or religious grounds. Descendants of those impacted can apply for accelerated citizenship.

Israel’s Law of Return

Many people can be eligible for Israeli citizenship through the Law of Return. It is not just a “citizenship by descent” program; it has a broader scope.

To qualify, you must be one of the following:

  • The descendant of Jewish or Israeli citizens. For example, if you were born to parents who are Israeli citizens.
  • Married to someone eligible under the Law of Return (including same-sex partnerships).
  • A practicing Jew, including converts from another religion.

For those who qualify for Israeli citizenship, you must intend to settle in Israel. You’ll need to live in Israel for three months before you obtain citizenship and a year before getting a passport.

A surfer in the carribean where many people are getting citizenship by investment

Which are the easiest countries to get Citizenship by Investment?

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The easiest nationality might be one you buy; however, Citizenship by Investment programs range in cost and quality. And the return on your investment depends on a number of factors.

Here’s a detailed article on Investment Visa programs for citizenship by investment with more pros and cons. However, we’re just looking at the easiest citizenship by investment programs here.

Malta CBI

Malta’s Individual Investor Program (MIIP) offers a quick and easy way for European Union citizenship. But Malta citizenship doesn’t come cheap.

You’ll need to have an income of more than €100,000 or have savings of €500,000 to qualify for Malta citizenship.

You’ll make a €650,000 non-refundable donation to the Malta national development fund.

Then, you’ll need to invest €150,000 in Malta Government Bonds or securities listed on the Malta stock exchange. You must hold the investment for a minimum of five years.

Finally, you’ll need a property in Malta. You can purchase one for more than €350,000 or rent one for more than €150,000 per year.

Meet those requirements, and you can get Maltese citizenship and a Maltese passport easily.

Antigua and Barbuda CBI

This is one of the easiest Caribbean countries to get full citizenship by investment. A one-time donation to the Antigua National Development Fund in the minimum sum of USD $100,000 allows you to obtain Antigua and Barbuda citizenship. The amount is USD $125,000 for a family of five and over.

You will also need to pay a processing fee of USD $25,000 for up to a family of four. Also, you must pay USD $15,000 for each dependent.

This program gives you and your family full citizenship in this Caribbean nation. A passport from Antigua and Barbuda provides you with visa-free travel in 126 countries globally. This access includes all the Schengen countries, Canada, and much of South America.

St Kitts and Nevis CBI

This citizenship by investment program focuses on real estate investment. To qualify, you will need to invest more than US$200,000 in a pre-approved real estate project. After seven years, you can sell the property.

Alternatively, invest in a pre-approved real estate project of upwards of US$400,000 for the principal applicant. You can sell this property after five years.

There is a third option; donate $150,000 to St Kitts and Nevis Sustainable Growth Fund.

Vanuatu CBI

Vanuatu has a Citizenship by Investment program that often takes less than two months, making it one of the fastest programs in the world.

The process is simple. You must be able to prove that you are worth more than $500,000 as a first step. Then, donate $130,000 to a government development fund, pay your $5,000 application fee and collect your passport.

Countries with the Easiest Citizenship by Naturalization

For most people, citizenship by naturalization is going to be your best bet, even though it can take a long time. But, if the easiest countries to get citizenship are your target, this is a path to a second passport and dual citizenship.

This process has four steps.

  1. Move to a country as a temporary or permanent resident.
  2. Stay in the country legally for the naturalization period.
  3. Pass any required language, nationality, or cultural exams.
  4. Apply for your new nationality and passport and Enjoy your dual citizenship benefits!

The appeal here is just living in the country is often a much easier first step. You can see our full list of the easiest countries to move to.

Which countries have the quickest citizenship by naturalization?

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How long you have to wait for naturalization is different depending on the country and your circumstances. Some countries can be as short as two years, while others as long as ten.

Many counties offer shorter residency qualification periods for refugees, spouses, adopted children, and other groups.

Just remember, the country with the fastest naturalization period isn’t necessarily the easiest to get citizenship; it is just the quickest!

Argentina has the fastest standard citizenship by naturalization

Argentina has the shortest standard time. Argentina’s nationality lets you live and work in any MERCOSUR country with only two years’ qualification. Argentina also offers a wide range of qualifying visas.

Peru also has a two-year qualification.

Countries with a three-year residence requirement:

  • Canada
  • Ecuador
  • Honduras (with just one year for Central-American nationals and two years for Spaniards and Ibero-Americans.)
  • Israel
  • Paraguay
  • Poland (fastest EU citizenship by naturalization.)
  • Serbia

Countries with a four-year residence requirement:

  • Brazil (Three years if you own a qualifying property or business.)
  • Ethiopia

Some countries with a five-year residence requirement (not a complete list):

  • Albania
  • Australia
  • Barbados
  • Belgium
  • Bulgaria
  • Chile
  • Czech Republic (Czechia)
  • Fiji
  • Finland
  • France
  • Ireland
  • Japan
  • Latvia
  • Malta
  • Mexico
  • Montenegro
  • Netherlands
  • New Zealand
  • Panama
  • Sweden
  • Thailand
  • United Kingdom (UK)
  • Uruguay
A house in a deserted area.  Sometimes these countries are easy to get citizenship through residency.

The easiest countries to get citizenship through residency

The first step is to find a way to live legally in another country and then apply for citizenship by naturalization. Here are some of the easiest countries to immigrate to.

Cross-country agreements

These agreements between countries allow each other’s citizens to live and work in each other’s countries. After a period of residency, you can become a citizen of that country. Here are some agreements:

  • The Nordic agreement between Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden.
  • European Economic Agreement (EEA) is an agreement between all 27 EU countries, Switzerland, Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway. Citizens of these countries can live, work, and move freely in the EEA Area.
  • The Trans-Tasman Agreement between Australia and New Zealand allows citizens of both countries to live and work freely in each other’s countries.
  • The MERCOSUR agreement makes it easier for citizens of South American countries to get residency in each other’s countries.

Signatories to these agreements are often the easiest countries to get citizenship if you qualify.

Residency by Investment Programs

Like citizenship by investment, governments across the world offer residency visas if you invest in their economies. Using a residency by investment program can be one of the easiest ways to get citizenship in high-demand countries. Please visit our Investment Visa page for a complete view of available opportunities for the investment route.

Portugal Golden Visa

To access this residency by investment program, you must invest upwards of €280,000 in property or other investments.

Click on this link for all the information you need on Portugal’s Golden Visa.

Spain Golden Visa

Invest €500,000 in real estate, and you can apply for the Spanish Golden Visa. After ten years of residency and proof of basic Spanish, you can apply for citizenship. There are other alternatives for the Golden visa. These include a €1,000,000 purchase of shares or a €1,000,000 bank deposit. Alternatively, investing in government bonds for €2,000,000.

Please see this article for more details of Spain’s Golden Visa.

Mauritius Residency by Investment

This island paradise welcomes investors. There are two main options for Mauritius Residency by Investment to get a residence permit.

  1. Buy an approved property for more than USD$ 375,000 for your residence or as an investment. You are eligible for residency as long as you own the property.
  2. Invest more than USD$ 375,000 into a qualifying Mauritian business, and you’ll get a 20-yer residence permit.

Both pathways lead to Mauritius citizenship for you and your family.

Latvia Residency by investment

This European Union country has an excellent residency by investment program that is proving very popular with investors.

There is a range of options in which you can invest. Each investment class has a different threshold. Here are some minimum investment requirements:

  • Share Capital (Business with less than 50 people) – €50,000
  • Share Capital (Business with more than 50 employees) – €100,000
  • Real Estate – €250,000
  • Government bonds – €250,000
  • 5-year fixed deposit in a Latvian bank. – €250,000

There are other fees involved. Head here to find out more information about the Latvia Residency by Investment program.

Income visas

Many countries offer residency if you can prove an income that will allow you to meet your living expenses. Your income may be from, for example, an investment, an offshore business, or a pension. The residency visas in this group have many names and often have slightly different requirements and restrictions. Here are a few examples of income visas around the world.

  • Spain offers permanent residency if you can show an annual income of €25,920 plus €6,480 for each dependent through its Non-Lucrative Visa. This renewable visa or residence permit is for one year. Notably, after five years in the scheme, you can apply for permanent residence in Spain.
  • As a freelancer earning at least €800 per month, you could be eligible for a “Freiberufler” visa. This income-based visa gives you residency rights to live and work in Germany.
  • Portugal’s D7 Passive income visa is an excellent option. The law says an income of €7,200 a year is sufficient, but our partner recommends €12,000 a year.
  • Nicaragua has a cheap income permanent residency visa. Proof of a monthly income from reliable sources of US$750 for you and US$150 for each family member is sufficient to qualify.

Related Blog you may enjoy: The fastest ways to a European passport

15 Countries with Easy Citizenship for Retirement

Many countries around the world welcome retirees who have a steady pension or retirement income. And, many retirees moving to these countries take up citizenship in their new home. Your dream retirement abroad destination could also give you an easy county to get citizenship.

CountryMonthly Income Requirement (USD) for a residence permit
Argentina$500 (The Argentina Pensionado visa)
Nicaragua $600 (and USD $150 for each family member. You must be over 45 years of age)
Honduras $600
Costa Rica$1,000. Importantly, you need to be able to prove that this income will last for your lifetime.
Dominican Republic$1,500
Panama$1,000 (The Panama Pensionado Visa)
Thailand$2,000 (Or a deposit account of USD$ 25,000. You must be over 50 years of age.)
Aruba$2,300 (You need to be over 55)
Malaysia$2,500 (You need to be over 50 and show approx. USD $80,000 in assets)
Mauritius$1,500 (Mauritius Retirement Visa)
Portugal$1,250 (The Portugal D7 Passive income Visa)
Spain$2,600 (The Spain non-lucrative visa)
Vanuatu $2,800
United Kingdom$2,900 (You must be over 60 and have an existing connection to the UK.)

With these programs qualifying for naturalization, these are all countries with easy citizenship for retirement.

The easiest citizenship using your professional skills

Many countries have a points-based immigration system aimed at in-demand professions giving an easy route to citizenship.

If your profession is on the list, you could be eligible for a residency visa. The program may have other requirements, for example, proficiency in English.

Skills needed often include IT, medicine, and finance. However, countries also prioritize skills as varied as bakers, botanists, and architects.

We’ve written a detailed article on Skilled Migration Visas to help you find the best program for you.

A barman manking a cocktail.  This is a profession on the skilled migration programs around the world.

Panama Friendly Nations Visa

Panama made significant changes to this program in August 2021, and this article reflects those changes.

This visa is for Expats with professional or economic ties to Panama, and it applies to all citizens of the 50 qualifying countries. This link has a list of the Friendly Nations.

You can qualify in three ways.

  1. Be an Expat employee of a Panamanian company.
  2. Purchase Panamanian real estate worth more than $200,000.
  3. Deposit more than $300,000 for more than three years in a Panamanian fixed-deposit account.

After two years, you can apply for Panamanian PR, and after five, you can apply for Panamanian citizenship and a passport.

See our detailed article for everything you need to know about the Panama Friendly Nations Visa.

The easiest countries to get citizenship in Europe (EU)

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The European country with the easiest citizenship will depend on your situation. Given that, here are our picks for the easiest path to an EU passport. The fastest citizenship in Europe many not be the easiest EU passport, depending on how you qualify.

Portugal – Easiest overall EU citizenship

The range of options makes Portugal one of the easiest countries to get citizenship in Europe, and one of the most popular.

  • Varied and accessible residency options.
  • 5-year naturalization.
  • Residency by Investment and the Golden Visa Portugal.
  • Flexible marriage definitions, including same-sex and common law.
  • Third-generation citizenship by descent.
  • Sephardic Jewish citizenship.
  • Flexible birthright rules.

Find out everything you need to know about Portugal citizenship in our detailed article.

Spain – easiest EU citizenship Latin America, Philippines, or USA nations

Spain’s long naturalization period is a problem for some people. However, the great discounts make it an easy country to get citizenship in Europe for millions of people.

  • Spain has a long naturalization period of ten years. But, the government reduces the wait to just two years for citizens of former colonies. So, for nationals of those countries, you can get dual citizenship only two years after establishing legal residence. This is one of the fastest citizenships in Europe by naturalization.
  • This pathway is also open to US citizens. But there is an extra step. Move to Puerto Rico for twelve months before moving to Spain, and you will qualify for this reduction in naturalization time as well. You need to apply for a “Certificate of Puerto Rican Citizenship” as a USA citizen who has lived on the island for twelve months.

See how to get Spanish citizenship here.

Austria and Germany – easiest for descendants of Nazi-era refugees

For some, the easiest country for citizenship in Europe may be one with a difficult history for your family.

  • Both these EU countries offer accelerated and streamlined pathways to nationality. These can be a fast way to European citizenship and an EU passport.

See all your options for German citizenship in our guide.

Italy, Ireland, Poland, and Hungary – the easiest citizenships through ancestry

These four countries all have generous and flexible approaches to citizenship by descent. You should explore your connection if you have ancestors from these countries in the family tree. That relative may be the key to getting citizenship in Europe for you.

Click on the links to see more details: Ireland, Italy, Poland, Hungary.

Malta – the easiest European Citizenship by Investment Country

Malta offers the easiest direct citizenship by investment option in Europe. Malta’s Individual Investor Program (IIP) offers full EU citizenship after 12 months. This is the fastest citizenship by investment in Europe. It is also one of the fastest ways to an EU passport for those without any family connection. Find out more on our Investment Visa page.

We’ve got more ideas on how to Live in Europe and 18 Ways to EU Residency in these articles.

Helping you choose your next home

We have three articles to help you pick the perfect place for your dream lifestyle. Please check out the Best Countries in the World to Live, The Cheapest Places to Live, and the Safest Countries to Live In.

Second citizenship could be exactly what you need right now

As you can see, there are many ways to get citizenship in a second country (also known as dual citizenship). Family ties, investment, and residency are three of the easiest ways to achieve second citizenship.

And, in these uncertain times, having a second passport could be a lifeline. Head to our detailed article to find out what Dual Citizenship is and all the benefits it offers. It’ll help you consider the whole picture, including tax benefits, financial impacts, and where you want to reside.

Some benefits of dual citizenship include:

  • Reuniting with your family
  • Better educational opportunities
  • Access to excellent medical care
  • Greater economic opportunities with tax benefits
  • More mobility with visa-free travel options depending on the country

Now you know the easiest countries in the world to get dual citizenship; good luck with finding the perfect fit!


What is the easiest EU country to get citizenship?

Portugal is one of the easiest European countries to get citizenship in the EU with lax physical presence requirements. Their citizenship program allows you to obtain citizenship in Portugal after five years of residency requirement. You can even get visa free access to more than 150 countries.

What is the easiest EU country to immigrate to?

The range of benefits makes it super easy to acquire citizenship in Portugal. Here are some reasons to seek citizenship in Portugal:

Varied and accessible residency options.
5-year naturalization.
Residency by Investment opportunities and the Golden Visa Portugal.
Flexible marriage definitions, including same-sex and common law.
Third-generation citizenship by descent.
Sephardic Jewish citizenship.

What is the easiest country to get citizenship by investment?

Malta offers the easiest direct citizenship by investment option in Europe. You can obtain citizenship with Malta’s Individual Investor Program (IIP) which offers full EU citizenship after 12 months. Apart from being the fastest citizenship by investment in Europe, it is also one of the fastest ways to an EU passport without a family connection.

Appendix 1 – Countries with unrestricted birthright citizenship

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Countries with unrestricted birthright citizenship

  • Antigua and Barbuda
  • Argentina
  • Barbados
  • Belize
  • Bolivia
  • Brazil
  • Canada
  • Chile
  • Costa Rica
  • Cuba
  • Dominica
  • Ecuador
  • El Salvador
  • Fiji
  • Grenada
  • Guatemala
  • Guyana
  • Honduras
  • Jamaica
  • Lesotho
  • Mexico
  • Nicaragua
  • Pakistan
  • Panama
  • Paraguay
  • Peru
  • Saint Kits and Nevis
  • St Lucia
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  • Tanzania
  • Trinidad
  • Tuvalu
  • United
  • Uruguay
  • Venezuela

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  1. Surprised that Argentina was not mentioned. After a very easy three year residency requirement citizenship can be granted.

    1. Hi Michael. We’re fixing our mistake right now. Argentina does indeed belong in the easiest countries to get citizenship. The citizenship by naturalization path takes just TWO years. Permanent residency is three. It seems back to front but is a result of the differing legislations time. Check out the Citizenship tab of our Argentina page for all the details. Watch the blog for other great additions soon.

      1. Is it true that one could go to argentina on a tourist visa live there for two years even if the visa expired and then get citizenship?

          1. Hi Mahmood. Yes, once you have been a permanent resident of Poland for three years you qualify for citizenship. UK citizens are treated the same, even after Brexit. Regards, Alastair

  2. I think Argentina would not be a bad choice, i wish to move there using student visa, to learn Spanish , please, do you have list of language schools that grant letter of acceptance to apply for visa? i think it will be useful to me too, but sir, between Portugal and Hungary,which is easy to get residency/citizenship if one migrates there for a study .

    Also, whats take on mexico?

    1. Hi Chris. Please check out our article on Student Visas. It has lots of information on the world’s most popular student visa programs and education systems. Good luck with the studies. If you’re also looking for somewhere to live and work after your studies, comparing post-study work visas is a great idea too.

    1. Hi Nitro, If you are aware of where your parents, grandparents and great-grandparents come from then we can help you understand what you are eligible for and our immigration partner network can help you get the citizenship.



      1. GOOGLE Familysearch. That’s how I found out my great grandfather was from Luxembourg. WHO KNEW!!!. And I qualify for a passport too. So start digging,

  3. Good day.. I’m single and would love to be in USA but have no specialized degree! Is it easier to get into Canada with my Portuguese passport but I was born in South Africa?

  4. Hello. My name is Javad and I am an Iranian passport holder. I got my bachelor degree in ‘Industrial engineering’, and took some diploma in the field of “TIG or GTAW” welding and “VT welding inspector” from vocational training.

    the main question is how can I proceed to get residency permit either by Naturalization or other way?

    Thank you.

  5. Hello, how hard is it to gain South African or Botswana citizenship coming from Canada? I am a podiatrist by trade, and an anthropologist by profession.

    1. Hi Zac. Botswana has a 10-year qualification for citizenship by naturalization and does not allow dual citizenship. South Africa ais a five-year naturalization period and does allow dual citizenship. Check out the Skilled Migration option – it might be a good pathway for you.

  6. Very helpful article!! I’m new to the idea of moving abroad so this answered a lot of questions right away.

  7. This was a truly excellent and helpful resource for considering the options of where to live/gain residency or citizenship. I really appreciate this.

  8. Very good article! We will be linking this great content on our website. Keep up the good writing.

  9. Hi,
    Thank you so much for such an excellent blog!
    I am from Israel.
    I am looking for EU citizenship, preferably throw Spain.

    Can I move to Puerto Rico for 12-months before moving to Spain , as the US citizens, or is it suitable only for them?

    Or If I will move to Argentina for 2 years, and get an Argentinian citizenship, may I after it get a Spain citizenship by a shorter path, in 2 years?

    Thank you

    1. Hi Polina. The Puerto Route is for US citizens, as they can get a certificate of citizenship after a year’s residence. Citizens of Argentina qualify for Spanish citizenship by naturalization after just two years (as opposed to the usual ten years.) So yes, you could get Argentina citizenship, move to Spain and then qualify for Spanish naturalization after two additional years.

  10. If I resided in Germany for 4 years and I live in France for 5 years now, does my years living in Germany count for me to get naturalized in France?

    1. Hi Erick. Unfortunately no, only the time you have spent legally living in France will count towards your naturalization period. Regards, Alastair

  11. As an African American, I want to mention Sierra Leone, who has been granting citizenship by decent to diasporans of the transatlantic slave trade for quite some time now. Also Ghana, while not necessarily having a fast track to citizenship, has established a “right to abode” extended especially to said diasporans.

    1. Hi Chris, Thanks for the heads up on this. We’ll do some additional research and explore adding Ghana and Sierra Leone to the list. Right to Abode citizenship pathways for diaspora are becoming more popular as a means to right historical wrongs. Cheers, Alastair

  12. What a wonderful article. Citizenship by investment is increasing in these countries due to the pandemic. These options provide an excellent alternative to migrate.

  13. Thanks for the well packaged information. I know what to do when it comes to acquiring citizenship and from which countries.

  14. Hi I don’t see anything regarding the Netherlands. Dutch parents when I was born in Canada. Do you have any info on this?

    1. Hi Mark. From our Dutch citizenship page :
      If your mother was a citizen of the Netherlands when you were born after 31 December 1984, you are probably also a citizen the Netherlands.
      If your father was a citizen of the Netherlands when you were born, you are probably also a citizen the Netherlands. If your parents were not married at the time of your birth, your father needs to have acknowledged you before the age of 7.
      Regards, Alastair

  15. Great article and website. Thank you for all of the information. I am a US citizen and interested in learning more about the Puerto Rico route to Spanish citizenship. I understand that I would need to live in Puerto Rico for a year and then Spain for two. Any additional information is greatly appreciated.

    Thank you,


      1. Hi Alastair,

        Thank you for your reply. I have read about the PR certificate (but that link does not seem to work for me, apologies). Do you have any more information about the Spanish citizenship part of it?

        Thank you for the continued help.

      2. Hello, Alastair.Thank you very much for giving so valuable information.I have a question.I am a citizen of Uzbekistan.Can I alsosimilarly live in South American country which is an ideal path to obtain Spanish citizenship or is it impossible for Uzbek citizens? Otherwise,can you give me advice regarding the easiest country to get citizenship?I am a student.

  16. Can u please mention which countries have an option to give a residency by investing 40000$ all my savings are 45000$ and i would like to move to a new country and open a restaurant there and settle, i am from Egypt single Male 39 years old. Please mention countries names and links for each investment option

    1. As an older American, my family has lived in the US for 200 yrs, so no ancestry in my great grandparent line. Strong UK ancestry beyond 200 yrs, direct descendent of King Edward I. I will have a very good pension starting in 3 years. Can I retire to the UK? I have bachelors and master’s degrees in engineering but want to retire asap without working.

  17. Thank you for this article. My partner is 33 engineer and I am 30 consultant (Finance/Logistics and supply chain). He is an Australian citizen and I have applied for my permanent residency and will be applying for my Australian citizenship as well. Once I get my citizenship, we are looking at options to get dual citizenship in an EU country. Which is the easiest EU country to immigrate to for Australian citizens for dual citizenship please? Thanks

  18. Thank you for a great article Alistair. My partner-engineer (33) and I -Business Analyst/business advisory consultant (30) would like to get dual citizenship for an EU country. My partner is Au citizen and I will receive Au my citizenship in 3 years (if all goes well). Which is the easiest EU country to immigrate to and that gives the option of dual citizenship? Thanks

    1. Hi Divya. An good option would be the Portugal Golden Visa. If you start the process now you could qualify in 5 years, just two years after you receive your Australian citizenship. There is no requirement to live in Portugal – just to visit for 7 days per year. Portugal has no restrictions on Dual Citizenship. All the best, Alastair

  19. I have a temporary passport issued for Palestinian refugees valid for 1-5 years and live in Middle East country.

    Which country I can apply to where I can work and live until I am eligible for citizenship. I am reaching my 50 in less than one year and I am not married; I have my mother who is my dependent and two cats whom I cannot leave or travel without them.

    I hold bachelor degree and MBA, I have work experience and willing to find a job to make my living and support my mother. The complication in my situation that my mother holds a full citizenship in the country we live in while I have to get my residency renewed on yearly basis (most of the times).

    I have checked the travel website regulation where many countries do not accept temporary passports to enter their countries.

    I will be grateful is you provide with the best advice.

  20. I’m currently in France and I’m holding temporary entrepreneur visa. Is it possible for me to get a permanent residence permit in any part of Europe?
    Because in France it will take too much time for applying for citizenship

  21. Hi
    Can you please tell me what countries I can get residency/citizenship from by just making an investment into the respective countries stockmarkets?
    Thank you kindly

  22. Hi I would like know about Investment in Australia for Citizenship,if u have no Business and only want to Invest is that possible I know its about between 2-5 million Aussie dollars but is that possible just to invest for residency…

  23. Hi, which countries can provide citizenship on the basis of Lgbt from a muslim country trans person. Specially when mental health and depression is at its peak.

  24. Hi , I am a Sri Lankan Banker of 35 Years old. Would love to become a citizen in UK. I have a BSc, Masters in Finance and a MBA with professional qualification in Banking. What is the path way sir…

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